One of the most obscure aspects of the Book of the Law is its insistence on observing “the rituals of the elements and the feasts of the times” while providing only a vague idea of what is meant by the verse. On the surface the interpretation of these ‘holy days’, as they have come to be called (perhaps erroneously), seem to be very straightforward but when that surface is scratched a greater depth of potential meaning is apparent.
Modern Thelemite occultists have generally adopted the standard OTO liturgical calendar, or at least an abbreviated version of it, often without giving the issue much deep consideration. Of course the final interpretation of the Book of the Law is entirely personal and subjective and so none of these calendars represent an ‘official’ Thelemite list of feast days. Even Crowley was unusually evasive about the dates of some of these “feasts of the times” in his various commentaries to the Book of the Law (1912, 1921, 1923 & 1925).
In the ‘Old’ Comment to the Book of the Law (1912) he makes the cryptic statement- “A crescendo of ecstasy in the mere thought of performing these rituals; which are in preparation under the great guidance of V.V.V.V.V.”, implying that even eight years after receiving the Book of the Law from Aiwass he still had not nailed the dates down. Almost a decade later when he dictated his New Comment to the Book of the Law he had a much clearer idea about some of them, but certainly not about all of them.
“Each element — fire, earth, air, water, and Spirit — possesses its own Nature, Will, and Magical Formula. Each one may then have its appropriate ritual. In particular the entry of the Sun into the cardinal signs of the elements at the Equinoxes and Solstices are suitable for festivals.”
-Aleister Crowley, The New Comment to Liber Al vel Legis The Book of the Law
This is still a very long way from ascribing selected dates to specific ‘festivals’ and even though they appear to be natural days for a celebration, the Equinoxes and Solstices are really no more than arbitrary choices that may, or may not, have an isomorphic correspondence. In this more lengthy exposition on Liber Al, Crowley does elaborate on all of the feasts that are listed and even sets definite dates for many of them but remains cryptically open on others. So, for instance, the “feast for the first night of the Prophet and his Bride” (vs 37) is set for 12 August as this was his wedding anniversary with Rose Kelly, his Scarlet Woman for the Cairo Working. At the same time, about the “feast for Tahuti and the child of the Prophet-secret, O Prophet!”, he only says; “This particular feast is of a character suited only to initiates”.
Perhaps Crowley’s most inspired interpretation of his Book of the Law was AL The Comment called D which he wrote while he was holed up in the Hotel Djérid in Tunis in 1923 after being deported from Italy. This comment was completed in autumn of this year at Nefta, largely under the influence of ethyl oxide, and was intended as a qaballistic examination of the Book of the Law. In it he refers to all of the rituals of the elements and the feasts of the times as a whole, saying;
“He begins by making a list of rituals and feasts; and in the course of this he works himself up into a state of rapture so that these rites at first clearly defined in order, gather force, wave upon wave, quicker and quicker, until at last he proclaims all times and places as proper for feasts.”
– Aleister Crowley, AL The Comment called D, (The Djeridensis Working)
Again, To Mega Therion leaves out any precise definition of these ‘holy days’, merely limiting himself to discussing the attitude that is proper to Thelemite celebrations generally and declaring that all times and places are suitable for such feasts. By his fourth, and final comment on the Book of the Law there was no mention of rituals or feasts to ponder over. Following his final injunction that “All questions of the Law are to be decided only by appeal to my writings, each for himself”, we find that for the nine feasts that are specifically mentioned in the Book of the Law (vs. 36-43) he only gives an exact date for three, connects two with common life events, gives an obscure explanation for one and makes general remarks about the remainder.
The Modern Thelemite Calendar and the Solar-Centric Perspective
The indeterminate nature of the majority of the dates of the feasts of the times and the general nature of the statement that there are rituals of the Elements has left the question of their interpretation open to the individual Thelemite to make for himself. The dates that can be precisely determined, like the feast for “the three days of the writing of the Book of the Law” all refer directly to, or celebrate the process that led to the reception of Liber Al. So, it is reasonable to accept Crowley’s determination of the feast for the Supreme Ritual being set on 20 March because that was the date that he performed the ceremony that was delivered to him by Rose (and which he performed only in order to show her how ineffective it would be).
Of course, since Crowley’s time there have been several generations of Thelemites and so, by necessity, there have been many more personal interpretations of the Book of the Law. A cursory examination of the list of feasts in the Second Chapter has led many people to make an isomorphic connection with the Neo-Pagan Wheel of the Year and to consider these feasts as representing a similar cyclic series of ritual celebrations but this is at best superficial and upon closer examination the evidence indicates that connecting the rituals of the Elements with the changing of the seasons is demonstrably an error.
This basic misapprehension is based in the geocentric perspective that has governed our thinking for countless millennia and from which we are only just emerging in this new Aeon of Horus. Because it appears that the sun travels once around the circle of the zodiac every year it seems, from our Earthly point of view, that it returns to the place from which it began, creating a perfect circle that is naturally punctuated by the points at which the sun is either balanced on the meridian of its path or at one of the extremes of its path through the sky (that is, either the equinoxes or solstices). In temperate zones these periods roughly correspond to the regular seasonal changes and so they map into the Platonic Elements very neatly. The problem arises when you go outside of the very narrow temperate band where there is no seasonal correspondence with the Elements and the system loses much of its symbolic power.
Secondly, and probably more importantly, we have become aware in recent centuries that the Earth isn’t the center of the universe in any but the most conceptual manner and that, in fact, it has been going around the sun the whole time! This means that it has never been the sun that is moving across the sky but rather that it has been the movement of the Earth that has caused the illusion of the solstices and equinoxes. This concept is very important to Thelemites in particular and the reason has been succinctly stated by CS Jones:
“You know how deeply we have always been impressed with the ideas of Sun-rise and Sun-set, and how our ancient brethren, seeing the Sun disappear at night and rise again in the morning, based their religious ideas in this one conception of a Dying and Re-arisen God. This is the central idea of the religion of the Old Æon, but we have left it behind us because although it seemed to be based on Nature (and Nature’s symbols are always true), yet we have outgrown this idea which is only apparently true in Nature. Since this great Ritual of Sacrifice and Death was conceived and perpetuated, we, through the observation of our men of science, have come to know that it is not the Sun which rises and sets, but the earth on which we live which revolves so that its shadow cuts us off from the sunlight during what we call night. The Sun does not die, as the ancients thought; it is always shining, always radiating Life and Life. Stop for a moment and get a clear conception of this Sun, how He is shining in the early morning, shining at mid-day, shining in the evening, and shining at night. Have you got this idea clearly in your minds? You have stepped out of the Old Æon and into the New.”
– Charles Stanfield Jones, Stepping Out of the Old Aeon and Into the New, The Equinox Vol. III, No. 1, pp. 183-4
Clearly this sort of solar-centric perspective invalidates any circular representation of the procession of the Thelemite feasts because the sun never really returns to its original starting place in the sky. Even though it may appear to return to the first degree of Aries at the March Equinox, the entire universe has moved and our star is in a vastly different position in relation to its neighbors than it was 365 days earlier. The contemporary Thelemite perspective, based on the facts of astronomy, recognizes that time progresses in a succession of unique and individual moments that can never truly be revisited and so it seems most reasonable for the Thelemite feasts to reflect this new spiritual perspective.
In fact, there is nothing in the text of the Book of the Law that indicates in any concrete terms that these feasts are actually recurring celebrations. On the contrary, even Crowley considered at least four of them to mark special ‘times’ in individual lives like birth and death. Viewed in this light there is only the smallest amount of evidence to indicate that the feasts of the times coincide with any sort of liturgical calendar at all and, as Crowley says, all times and places are proper to the celebration of a Thelemite feast.
Rituals and Feasts
All of this strongly implies that, as with the rest of the message of the Book of the Law, the interpretation of the “rituals of the elements and the feasts of the times” is to be left open to individual Thelemites to decide for themselves. To do that we need to start from the beginning point of defining the terms that have been used. The words chosen by Aiwass to express the Book of the Law can be taken as having been chosen to convey certain and specific concepts and so the weight of interpreting the verses most naturally falls on why those exact words have been used, and what their exact definition is expressing in the context of the text.
The words that have the greatest potential to admit variations in interpretation in the Second Chapter, verse 36, are ‘rituals’, ‘feasts’ and ‘times’. It can be safely assumed that the elements that are referred to are the standard Platonic set of Fire, Water, Air and Earth (with the modern addition of the convergent Spirit) rather than to the Chinese equivalents or the elements of the periodic table. So, what exactly is meant by rituals and feasts?
Once again Crowley is vague and makes a very general remark in his New Comment that “the difference between ‘rituals’ and ‘feasts’ is this: by the one a particular form of energy is generated, while there is a general discharge of one’s superfluous force in the other. Yet a feast implies periodical nourishment”. Broadly speaking, this is an accurate appraisal for very general purposes but it doesn’t go a long way towards helping to define specifically what was intended by Aiwass in the verse. No doubt, the intended interpretation draws heavily on Crowley’s own subconscious correlations for rituals and feasts and so it is reasonable to connect the rituals of the elements to the Golden Dawn practices that had had a profound effect on him.
As Crowley would have been very consciously aware, the word ritual derives directly from the Latin ritualis; relating to religious rites and has come to mean a religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order (OED). This definition implies that it indicates some operation that is intended to be repeated, or at least performed consistently according to the same pattern as distinct from a ceremony (from the Latin caerimonia, holiness, sacredness, awe and which was, until the 14th century, an obscure term rarely used) which may be a unique performance for a formal religious or public occasion, especially one celebrating a particular event, achievement, or anniversary (OED). The word ritual implies a form of religious worship but in the context of Thelema, with its shift in focus from making propriation to some god, to working incrementally towards the Theurgic goal of realizing the divinity of the self, the real implication is that the rituals of the elements are operations of magick.
“Behold! the rituals of the old time are black. Let the evil ones be cast away; let the good ones be purged by the prophet! Then shall this Knowledge go aright.
I am the flame that burns in every heart of man, and in the core of every star. I am Life, and the giver of Life, yet therefore is the knowledge of me the knowledge of death.
I am the Magician and the Exorcist. I am the axle of the wheel, and the cube in the circle. “Come unto me” is a foolish word: for it is I that go.
Who worshipped Heru-pa-kraath have worshipped me; ill, for I am the worshipper.”
Aleister Crowley, Liber Al vel Legis The Book of the Law (Second Chapter, verses 36-43)
Golden Dawn Elements in The Book of the Law
The nature of the Elements in a Thelemite/Hermetic context must define the purpose of the rituals that employ them and offer some insight into their possible objective. The strong influence of Golden Dawn qabalah on the text of Liber Al indicates that the interpretation of the nature of these Elements draws heavily on the manner in which they were presented (i.e. to Crowley) by that Hermetic order. In the Golden Dawn schema of qabalah the four Platonic Elements correspond to the tenth Sephirah Malkuth and are found in their manifest form only in the World of Assiah. Although the higher Sephiroth have their own Elemental correspondences, these are largely conceptual because the complete set of four Elements can only exist in their correctly balanced state on the lowest Light of the Tree of Life.
In other words, no Element can exist in isolation- there cannot be any Air, or Fire, or Water, unless there is a foundation of the material Element of Earth to support their existence. As they represent our sensual interpretation of our universe, the Elements are obviously microcosmic properties and have only a weak, isomorphic correlation to macrocosmic, or environmental influences. This implies that the “rituals of the elements” are methods for self realization rather than operations of religious worship. This interpretation ties in very neatly with Crowley’s own method of self realization, initiatory ceremonial magick. In fact, the incremental elemental initiatory structure of the Golden Dawn was itself a significant factor in the genesis of the Book of the Law.
To understand this integral connection, it is necessary to look at the important steps that led to Crowley being properly prepared to receive the Book of the Law in Cairo in 1904. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was founded on the basis of a series of documents containing initiation ceremonies and instructions in Hermetic magick that were discovered in London in the 1880s. These documents were purported to be the instructions that were given to aspirants in the outer order of an ancient, and secret society of initiates based on the Continent, and on this basis a temple was established at 17 Fitzroy Street, London on 1 March 1888.
In a very short time (the temple was active for only eight years) over 300 people had progressed through the elementary outer order grades and were waiting for the leaders of the Golden Dawn to provide them with further instruction. Unfortunately, the inner order adepts of the Golden Dawn had lost contact with the European order and the next step in the initiatory process had never been communicated. Samuel Lidell MacGregor-Mathers, the head of the Golden Dawn, had promised to contact the ‘secret chiefs’ of the order to obtain the more advanced instructions and, having failed to do that, had produced his own set of instructions for the first of the higher grades. This development was largely seen as a stop-gap at best, and, at worst, as fraud and within a few years the Golden Dawn had split.
Mathers had been Crowley’s mentor in magick and the young magician had complete faith in the possibility of his teacher contacting these hidden masters. It seems likely that Crowley would have made the attempt to contact them himself, especially after the schism of 1900 that divided the Golden Dawn, resulting in Crowley’s ejection from the order. In fact, his excommunication made it imperative that he make some sort of connection with these ‘secret chiefs’ if he were to continue to progress on the path of initiation that he had embarked on in 1898. And he wouldn’t have been alone in these sorts of efforts. So it is really no surprise that these efforts should eventually produce a result.
“March 20th. The invocation was a startling success. I was told that “The Equinox of the Gods had come”; that is, that a new epoch had begun. I was to formulate a link between the solarspiritual force and mankind. Various considerations showed me that the Secret Chiefs of the Third Order (that is, of the A\ A\ whose First and Second Orders were known as G\ D\ and R.R. et A.C. respectively) had sent a messenger to confer upon me the position which Mathers had forfeited. I made it a condition that I should attain Samadhi; that is, that I should receive a degree of illumination, in default of which it would be presumptuous to put myself forward.”
“…charged by the Secret Chiefs of the Third Order with a mission of such importance that the last event in the world’s history of importance, even approaching it, was Mohammed’s…”
“I wrote a formal letter to Mathers informing him that the Secret Chiefs had appointed me visible head of the Order, and declared a new Magical Formula. I did not expect or receive an answer.”
Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, Chapter 49
Initially, at least, Crowley connected the Book of the Law entirely with his Golden Dawn experience and it was only later that he saw it as the basis for a new magickal order (which, incidentally, absorbed the two outer orders of the Golden Dawn into its structure in their entirety). So it is not surprising that the symbolism employed in the language used by Aiwass drew heavily on the symbol structure that Crowley had spent six years building into his subconscious with the Golden Dawn methods of initiation and it follows that the “rituals of the elements” should refer to the four Neophyte grade ceremonies (and their derivative rituals) of that order. In this light, the basis for making a connection between the “rituals of the Elements” and a cyclic liturgical calendar is very weak.
The Hermetic influence on Thelema colors the definition of many of its basic concepts. The connection between religious communion and ritual has been indoctrinated pervasively into the Western psyche but it has not always been the case. The original intention of the Roman ritualis was to maintain the pax deorum, a peace or covenant with the gods. This concept resonates with the spirit of Thelema very closely as its objective is create a balance Nu and Hadit (or Nuit and Had) in the consciousness of the individual. The first reference to worship in the Book of the Law tells us that, “The Khabs is in the Khu, not the Khu in the Khabs.
Worship then the Khabs, and behold my light shed over you!”(First Chapter, verses 8&9). As I said in A Comment on the Verses of the Book of the Law; “Nuit defines the parameters of spirit and of her interaction with each of us. Khabs, light, is in the Khu, the undying intelligence, or being, that in each of us so one is to look to the light within the essence of the self, in Hadit, to achieve union with Nuit.” This isn’t done by means of a ritual, as later Hadit directs us: “To worship me take wine and strange drugs whereof I will tell my prophet, & be drunk thereof!”(Second Chapter, verse 22). This connects worship with feasting as opposed to ritual.
“Lurk! Withdraw! Upon them! this is the Law of the Battle of Conquest: thus shall my worship be about my secret house.”
“Worship me with fire & blood; worship me with swords & with spears.”
Aleister Crowley, Liber Al vel Legis The Book of the Law (Third Chapter, verses 9 & 11)
So then, what is the nature of ritual as it is expressed in the Book of the Law? The First Chapter, speaking with the voice of Nuit informs us that; “The key of the rituals is in the secret word which I have given unto him.” (First Chapter, verse 20). This ‘secret word’ is Abrahadabra, which Crowley had already amended to fit his qabalah. I have also noted that
“the key of the rituals, that is, of the elements or the four grades of initiation, is in the formula in the Second Chapter vs. 76. This word has been given to him, which means either to Crowley or to the Child of the Beast who will interpret it.” (DG Mattichak Jr- A Comment on the Verses of the Book of the Law). In fact it is the conflation of these two aspects that reveals the intention of the magick formula of Abrahadabra.
Nuit also tells us that “the rituals shall be half known and half concealed” (First Chapter, verse 34), implying that some part of “the rituals of the elements” is already familiar or explicitly revealed in the text of the Book of the Law, or both. The connection with the Golden Dawn system of magick is strengthened when Nuit states; “Abrogate are all rituals, all ordeals, all words and signs.” (First Chapter, verse 49), essentially repealing all rites of religious worship, initiation and established systems of symbols, instructing her ‘prophet’ to purge them of their inconsistencies while warning us that “if the ritual be not ever unto me: then expect the direful judgments of Ra Hoor Khuit!” (First Chapter, verse 52). It is only after Nuit has defined the rituals of Thelema in this way that Hadit outlines their structure in the Second Chapter and so it is reasonable to assume that everything that we can know about them is presented to us in these verses.
From this we can ascertain that the implicit intention of the rituals is to raise the conscious awareness of the individual divinity of the Thelemite, their awareness of being a god. These rituals are already partly known and partly encoded into the Book of the Law, and while they are intended to replace the practices of the old Aeon, this is not necessarily on a pro rata basis. Finally, they are to performed with joy and beauty and ever unto Nuit. They are to be expressions of our True Will. In other words, we are to devise the ritual by which we come to be aware of our individual elemental existence.
This is reflects the depth of the elemental correspondences that were built into the Golden Dawn system of magick that Crowley had learned. It liberates man from the need to have a cleric represent him to his deity and makes each of us responsible for our own spiritual development and this philosophy reaches its fullest expression in Thelema. The ritual of the Aeon of Horus is focused on the age old Hermetic goals of Theurgy and Gnosis. This implies that “the rituals of the Elements” are relevant in time only to the individual who is progressing through those degrees of self awareness. While every Thelemite may find some individual justification for celebrating the seasons with some sort of ritual, there is none specifically coded into Liber Al.
The Tricky Timing of Feasts
The ‘feasts of the times’ is very suggestive of some sort of cyclic, or recurring liturgical calendar but even Crowley didn’t connect some of the named feasts with any sort of annual celebration. He described a feast as the discharge of superfluous energy, whilst it also simultaneously “implies periodic nourishment”. In a general way this is so, as the word feast can be taken to mean a large meal, typically a celebratory one, as well as an annual religious celebration (OED). This interpretation came into English just about 1,000 years ago from the Old French word feste (fete in modern French) which itself derives from the Latin word festus, meaning festive, joyful, merry, which is related to feriae- holiday and fanum- temple. The original intention of the Christian feast days was to differentiate them from holy days of fasting and the idea derives from the Roman days called feria, or free days.
In this way the etymology indicates that the “feasts of the times” are celebrated on days set aside to mark specific events with food and entertainments. Some of these feast days, as noted above, are clearly defined by the text. A feast for the first night of the Prophet and his Bride explicitly infers that the 12 August, the wedding anniversary of Aleister and Rose Crowley is a holy day in the Thelemite calendar, but, as Crowley was married more than once this may still be only an arbitrary date as is evidenced by Crowley’s belief that he had ‘conceived’ his ‘magical child’ with Jeanne Foster (Soror Hilarion). The Book of the Law also infers that there will be more than one Thelemite prophet and so this feats may evolve at a later date to mark days set aside to celebrate the marriage of more than one couple.
A feast for the three days of the writing of the Book of the Law is the only one of the listed celebrations that is indisputably linked to specific dates, 8-10 April. Almost as certain are the feasts for the Supreme Ritual and for the Equinox of the Gods, which are strongly associated with 20 March, marking the anniversary of the performance of the initial ritual that precipitated Crowley’s connection with Aiwass that resulted in the dictation of the Book of the Law. The feast to mark the Equinox of the Gods may also take in 21 March as the Equinox in 1904 was at 12:58am GMT on that date and the successful performance of the Supreme Ritual took place at 10pm on the previous day, implying that the correct time of day for this particular feast may be from dusk on 20 March until dawn on the 21st.
The final cryptically defined feast is for Tahuti and the child of the beast which Crowley neatly avoids describing in any of his commentaries on the Book of the Law by indicating that it has a secret nature that can be divulged only to initiates (exactly who these initiates are, and what they have been initiated into, are never specified). The wording of the verse leaves it open to alternate interpretations (as is common throughout the text):
39. A feast for Tahuti and the child of the Prophet-secret, O Prophet!
While the verse may indicate that the feast itself should remain secret it may also be interpreted to mean that the child of the Prophet is the secret. There are two entities in the Book of the Law that are referred to as a “child”- one is the child god Hoor Paar Kraat, the small god that resides within the silence of the individual, and the other is the ‘child of thy bowels’ who Crowley at one time believed to be Charles Stanfield Jones. How that child is connected to Tahuti is unclear.
O Thou, the Apex of the Plane,
With Ibis head and wings of Night! Whose serpents strain
Their bodies, bounding the Beyond
Thou in the Light and in the Night
Art One, above their moving might.
Aleister Crowley, Liber DCLXXI vel Pyramidos
The Thelemite interpretation of Tahuti is as the general divinity of magick and appeared to Crowley in the more generic form of Thoth on 17 March in the lead up of the events that culminated in the reception of the Book of the Law and later Crowley included this godform as one of the presiding divinities in the Pyramidos ceremony of initiation, symbolizing the motive force of True Will that is exposed by initiation. This interpretation, of this feast celebrating the initiation of the individual into the mysteries, implies that this date may be best placed on 18 November to celebrate Crowley’s original admission into the Neophyte Grade of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in 1898, the date upon which the prophet was first exposed to his own True Will and which led ultimately to the reception of the Book of the Law.
A feast for fire and a feast for water; a feast for life and a greater feast for death!
Aleister Crowley, Liber Al vel Legis The Book of the Law (Second Chapter, verse 41)
The remaining feasts are of a very generic nature, making them open to such a wide interpretation that they could mean almost anything. Crowley’s own interpretation of these feasts is puerile at best and exposes something of the limitations that he experienced when interpreting the verses of his book. On an explicit level, celebrating feasts for boy and girl children that correlate roughly to the conceptual gender polarity of fire and water provides some sort of explanation but the absence of the secondary Elements makes this a very vague, and unlikely interpretation. Additionally, the Elements Fire and Water traditionally correlate to the Father and the Mother rather than to the son and daughter that would fit more neatly with feasts intended to celebrate a child’s entry into adolescence by its parents.
The final two feasts, celebrating life and death, are very long established social conventions that have endured across the aeons and, it would seem, will continue to do so for as long as humans are born to a temporal existence. At the same time, these two time honored occasions for celebrating feasts fall outside of any cyclical or liturgical calendar just as Crowley’s feasts to celebrate the coming of age of young adults would tend to fall on an individual’s birthday. Their inclusion of the feasts for Fire and Water in this verse does tend to support their interpretation as celebrations of milestones in life, although events like first initiation or marriage seem to be more fitting occasions for these celebrations.
Daily Occasion for Joy
The final two verses outlining the nature of the feasts of Thelema are the most general instructions of all and indicate that every day of life is to be celebrated with a feast honoring Hadit while every night should be celebrated with a feast for Nu. In his long comment Crowley once again hides in obscurity when he comes to interpreting these verses, giving a general explanation of them being the continual joy that results from ‘realizing Hadit’ when awake and ‘returning to the bosom of Nuit’ whilst asleep, hinting at some secret magical arcanum concealed from the uninitiated.
In the end, these wide interpretations of the Thelemite feasts perhaps come the closest to expressing the true nature of the philosophy of Thelema and, to a larger extent, override the specific feasts outlined in the previous verses simply because it makes them superfluous to the continuous active practice of Thelema generally. As the Thelemite continually attunes themselves to the performance of their True Will, each meal becomes an essential part of that True Will, making the act of eating a part of the greater ritual of initiation that is proceeding throughout the individual’s life and so it, like every other ritual in the life of a Thelemite, should be performed with joy & beauty.
Aleister Crowley, Liber Al vel Legis The Book of the Law (esp. Second Chapter, verses 36-43)
Aleister Crowley, Liber Legis The Comment, The Equinox, Vol I, no. 7
Aleister Crowley, The New Comment to Liber Al vel Legis The Book of the Law
Stephen Skinner (ed), The Magical Diaries of Aleister Crowley
Aleister Crowley, AL The Comment called D, (The Djeridensis Working)
Charles Stanfield Jones, Stepping Out of the Old Aeon and Into the New, The Equinox Vol. III, No. 1, pp. 183-4
Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley
H H Scullard, A History of the Roman World from 753 to 146 BC, Chapter XVIII
DG Mattichak Jr, A Comment on the Verses of the Book of the Law
Aleister Crowley, The Equinox of the Gods, The Equinox Vol III, No 3
Aleister Crowley, Liber DCLXXI vel Pyramidos